German Unification Case Study

Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany



Historical Background


Goals &




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"Peace Treaty" between WW II Allies and Germany

Signed on September 12, 1990 in Moscow

Signatories: The Four World War II Allies and the Two Post-war German States

Great Britain
Federal Republic of Germany
German Democratic Republic

The six foreign ministers
(from left to right):

James Baker (USA),
Eduard Shevardnadze (USSR),
Hans-Dietrich Genscher (FRG),
Roland Dumas (France),
Markus Meckel (GDR),
Douglas Hurd (GB)

Provisions of the Treaty:

  • The Four Powers relinquish their occupation rights in Germany
  • Germany regains its full sovereignty (first time since 1945)
  • Current outer borders of East and West Germany are permanent borders of Germany (= Germany accepts loss of territories East of the Oder-Neisse Rivers,ceded to Poland and USSR after WW II: East Prussia, Silesia, Pomerania)
  • Germany has no territorial claims whatsoever against any other states and shall not assert any in the future (in Poland, Czechoslovakia, USSR)
  • Germany will remain in NATO
  • East German army will be integrated into Bundeswehr, but combined German army will be reduced to 370,000
  • No nuclear weapons will be deployed in East Germany
  • Germany renounces production, procuring and independent use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons
  • Germany attests that war will never again be initiated from its soil

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